Monday, August 24, 2009




Friday, August 21, 2009


Pushing Pixels - Paper outline

Pushing Pixels

August 21, 2009 - Floyd/Jenn

Subtitle: Towards understanding the role of deign in facilitating the social discovery/acquisition/development of kinesthetic literacy through asynchronous exertion interactions.

1. Motivation: Kinesthetic literacy is an important aspect of being human, contributing to social, mental and physical health.

2. Problem: People’s decline in participating in physical activity à kinesthetic illiteracy?

3. Approach: a) using social motivational/guided discovery aspects to facilitate exertion movements; learning to move b) making visible kinesthetic for guided discovery for learning c) utilizing asynchronicity to facilitate critical reflection à guided discovery à kinesthetic literacy

4. Results:

5. Conclusion:

A. Theory: Social facilitation changes performance even when mediated/ asynchronous/ can be used for teaching?

B. Research Question: What is the role of design in supporting the development of kinesthetic literacy?

C. Contribution: Contributing to an understanding of shared/sharing whole-body interactions.

Design Decisions:

· Asynchronicity to facilitate reflection

· Restrict movement to support synchronicity à social

· (Connected: body synchronicity and temporal asynchronicity; social à kinesthetic literacy)

· Offering ancillary information to support guided discovery

· Lets user make their own decisions/discoveries

Table: Teacher à representation à verbal à student (student only; bodily actions)

Pixel: Teacher à Movement à student (both student and teacher: bodily actions; more guided, structured)

Facilitate witting = knowledge, transition through technology

Exertion making participation visible: turning unwitting bystanders to witting bystanders? Performance frame: exertion facilitates/ entices entering it


Wednesday, August 19, 2009



Bought and ordered hardware.
Did video prototype with purchased hardware, promising results, will continue building based on feedback.

Tuesday, August 18, 2009


Equipment sources

Identified various resources/shops to gather equipment to get best deal.


Monday, August 17, 2009


Learning about reps with exercise machines

Some say the speed and weight is important: do your reps as fast as possible to grow muscle. But keep speed constant
breaks down bodybuilding movements into 4 numbers: positive (weight up), pause, negative (down) (4th=?)
it’s about strength and power (speed vs intensity?)
recommends for slow reps (says you should vary between slow (explosive) and fast):
4 sec up, 4 down, 2 sec pause
higher rate of pushing weights means higher intensity
Acceleration Phase: The initial part of the movement, in which the weight is brought from a standing still to the target speed;
Constant Speed Phase: The part of the movement in which the weight is moved in a more or less constant speed (note that some speed training techniques omit this phase);
Deceleration Phase: The final part of the movement in which the weight is decelerated in order bring the weight to a stop at the required position while avoiding hyper-extension, -flexion or -rotation, depending on the case.
Also recommends constant acceleration (why?)
Using Super-Strict Form. You do not want any of the acceleration imparted to the load to originate from jerking or "cheating" movements. If you jerk, the initial part of the movement may be devoid of any tension on the working muscle - something you’ll dearly want to avoid.
Using Progressive Acceleration. Because the momentum that is generated when a mass is accelerated tends to reduce the load once acceleration stops, you should attempt to continue to accelerate the load throughout the movement. As long as the load is accelerated, more power is generated and the muscles are kept under tension. If you rely on the momentum generated during the initial part of the movement to "carry" you through the end of the movement, you are not placing the muscle under the constant tension necessary for best results. This also means that you should try not to apply maximal force right at the beginning of the movement, but rather increase it gradually over the course of the first third to one-half portion of the movement.
suggests deskercise websites.|category_root|Sports+and+leisure|14419152/c_2/2|cat_14419152|Home+gym+equipment|14419293/c_3/3|cat_14419293|Other+gym+equipment|14419296.htm
has exercise machines and multi-machines



Curriculum highlights

Comparing maths and PE:

Planning and assessing PE:

Case study: interactive dance


Saturday, August 15, 2009


Refined notes on discussion with PE advisor

PE Teacher: Keren T. (PE Advisor for County of Norfolk)
Working with schools 4-19; teacher training with Penny L.
Active Norfolk
• Paul E.: ex-Olympic runner
Intranet: internal, within school, contact heads of PEs in school; data protection acts.
1. What think of it
a. (Time zone problem: you build on another person’s physical skill with a time delay; reflection; collaboration;
i. a competition team/organising team with all school; school sport partnerships; festivals; because of rural not many children in school; enable schools who don’t have support would mean that A at A location still able to compete with B at B location
ii. Roger S. - leave for 2 weeks
iii. Virtual competitions
2. How she sees learning being facilitated
a. What about learning: sit up example; trying to mimic the exercise; member of staff would be learning what happening on computer screen but also student and then to talk to masses of school to teach about movement that just learned
b. Teachers are least happy to deliver PE because its such specialist activity – but with our idea teachers could become more confident about lessons and deliver better quality lessons
c. (stress between activity and learning): a new national curriculum was introduced to year 7/8 at 2008 – only being implemented this year and its assessment
i. 7 levels of attainment and by 14 have reached level 5 (goes up to level 8)
1. LEVEL 5: select and combine skills technical idea; apply appropriately showing precision; can play, understand, tactics, referee, quote a few roles – the elite performance. There are different levels for i.e. average school player versus elite player
ii. PE teachers not happy with levelling children because suppose to be giving level to overall performance in school, not just PE; new curriculum had to teach 5 out of 6 “Range and Content”: given list of types of accurate replication; exploring ideas; effective --- schools will try and deliver this using equipment available through particular activity
iii. New Curriculum: Rounder’s and softball used to be given these but now have more flexibility based on what equipment they have, or geography or time of year etc.
iv. Assessment done by teacher and pupils; assess by team processes: self and peer assessment (i.e. kids give warm up and cool down and then assessed)
v. What know and understand as well as what can do; and what can teach
d. Assessment versus teaching: give the children the opportunity to show their knowledge and understanding – “step into sport”: children are taught the basics (what they don’t need are the rules) what they need is to know how to turn it into a much more exciting activity; so children can set up their own game (i.e. run, played, scored, and evaluated by pupils).
e. The teachers have to do some teaching to start with; but then less as the lessons go on – so on-going process during the activity; so process of learning; lot of guided discovery: when children are given a goal and then work out how to get to that solution; then take that skill in and add to something else – their understanding of the game is much better than just learning rote learning
f. program of study for key stage 3
3. How she would improve it
→ Our idea could be used across days in same school and/or across cities
→ Making and applying decisions: refining and adapt ideas and plans based on changing environment → same as any Science class
Sometimes: For safety’s sake need to be taught do what I say when I say; health and safety if vital (e.g. javelin); so different flexibility in sport depending on type of sport


Friday, August 14, 2009


Dialogue with Keren, PE advisor

August 14, 2009
Exchange – Floyd/Jenn + Keren Thompson
Triple Jump
Swiss Ball
What think of it
How she sees learning being facilitated
How she would improve it
Teaching collaboration
Risk: Difference in math vs. basketball
Assessment – Links to teaching
Select, combine ideas
Play/demonstrate reasonable skills, e.g. quote a few rules, refereeing their own games
Overall performance instead of specific skills
Demonstrating skills such as outwitting -> in football/netball OR windsurfing, depending what’s available
5 key points: - developing
- peer assessment
- … see (
2 on 2: making & applying decisions -> developing social skills
Risk: depends on physical activity: Track and field: disc: do what I say when I say it, because of health and safety. Contrast: football: more independent guidance
Guided exploration!



Instantiation thoughts

TOPIC: Asynchronous kinaesthetic literacy

QUESTION: What is the role of design in supporting asynchronous kinaesthetic literacy with exertion interfaces?

Some sub questions include (but see attached doc for more)
Does asynchronicity = reflection (or learning)?
How can we design for non-parallel interaction (where ‘invasion or overlapping’ takes place?)
How can we design for collaboration (building on the previous movement)?

Our intention is to use the Exertion Framework and lessons learned from the table/Wiimote project to explore the above question. We will also consider how the Exertion Framework applies/or not to the table/Wiimote project. Floyd is also interested in learning more about the wittingness framework and performance.


Thursday, August 13, 2009


Focusing the Research question

August 13, 2009
Exchange – Floyd/Jenn
Research Question
What is the role of design in supporting asynchronous kinaesthetic literacy with exertion interfaces. (fosters learning/ lends itself to learning)
Asynchronous kinaesthetic literacy with exertion interfaces.
• Exertion Framework (Floyd)
• PE Teacher: successful measures/learning outcomes
Key Mechanics
• Replay: recording and replaying back the movement (?); pre/post movement: we believe that the main reflection comes from replay – they reflect on the experience to learn about how to do movement better/faster/bigger etc.
• Non-parallel: “invasion or overlap” (opposite to Nike Plus) where activity happens in shared space so has the opportunity for invasion or overlapping - so in game, start to overlap the activity (jump into another person’s space)
• Collaborative: building on others’ exertion.
Key Elements
• Does knowing the risks bring the fear?
• (Body) Physical Risk: so how activity challenges body?
• (Mental) Fear: the cognitive side?
• Cognitive versus exertion
• Not about navigation
• Less about target of action/ more about pre/post movement (replay)
• Target is about game/ free movement is about play
• Using movement to achieve something / using movement for sake of movement
• Does kinaesthetic literacy reduce risk?
• Does kinaesthetic literacy reduce fear?
• Does kinaesthetic literacy help manage risk?


Wednesday, August 12, 2009


Kinesthetic literacy

PE teaches kinesthetic literacy: exertion interfaces might facilitate that with a good design.

Here are a few pointers:
is from the “Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment” for Nothern Ireland:
has a nic PDF: 2nd page: learning outcomes all over the place!
Explore the positive effects of exercise on their physical and
emotional well-being, for example, use electronic and digital
recording, measuring and timing devices to measure and review
performance; develop positive self image and feelings of
(Key Element: Personal Health)
Develop sportsmanship, a sense of fair play, tolerance, respect
for others and take responsibility for their decisions and
actions, for example, respond sensitively to the physical
movement contribution of others when developing group/team
(Key Element: Moral Character)
Explore the aesthetic quality of movement, dedication,
perseverance and strength of human spirit, for example identify
and explore a personally meaningful sporting moment or
(Key Element: Spiritual Awareness)

Participation in Physical Education enables young people to learn through movement so that they
develop, extend and refine their skills in a range of movement contexts. Physical Education should
also help young people to develop positive attitudes towards participation in physical activities in their
pursuit of a healthy lifestyle. Active, enjoyable and challenging learning experiences in this Area aim to
develop in young people:
is from Association for Physical Education:
The outcome, physical literacy, along with numeracy and literacy, is the essential basis for learners to access the whole range of competences and experiences.
[See moen’s movement literacy!]

“Learning to move” - learning the skills, techniques and understanding required for participation in physical activities, knowledge and control of one’s body and its range of and capacity for movement. The range of learning includes hand-eye coordination, coping with space, speed and distance, and knowing the “what?” and “how?” about activities, such as where and how to become involved in activity and being able to take part as performers, coaches, leaders and referees; and
“Moving to learn” - physical activity as a context for and means of learning. It involves a whole range of learning outcomes which go beyond learning how to engage in selected physical activities – social skills; managing competition and cooperation, including use of strategies and tactics; problem-solving; applying moral and aesthetic judgements; and knowing when and why different actions and behaviours are appropriate and effective, including the relationship of exercise to health and well-being.

breaks them down into:
aims (identify where you are going), objectives (guide how to get there), learning outcomes (enable to establish if you arrived)
learning outcomes: e.g. when players understand and can demonstrate roles of attack and defense. Key teaching points. Ensures pupils are “physically educated”.
Either: able to do, know or understand
Participation in soccer does not necessarily improve social skills. “it is essential for teams to plan, compete and evaluate together, with the teacher encouraging exploration and discussion, with the inclusion of everyone in the group in these debates” [context around activity seems most important for learning]
Good refs
says assessment of learning outcomes is important, but has not been done effectivbely in phys ed
1. assessment should be ongoing
2. should be authentic
3. planning what to teach=planning what to assess: called “instructional alignment”
4. assessment serves as means of holding accountable for learning and teaching: ensures pupils and teachers stay focused
“assessment does not simply measure student performance but improves it”
More than “skills test”, as it “does not take into account social dimensions of games”, out of context, not game play
e.g. tactical games lesson:
1. Confront problem
2. engage in action situation
3. reflect on actions=critical thinking
Assessment types:
1. Test
2. Q&A
3. Game performance assessment instrument
4. Monitoring and observation
5. Rubric
6. Checklist
7. Self-report or journal
Students can assess each other in turns
4 learning outcomes domains:
1. psychomotor
2. cognitive
3. behavioral and social
4. affective

psychomotor= game performance
cognitive=understand or knowing game related knowledge
behavioral and social=students’ socialization into sport
affective=teamwork, cooperation

sport citizenship
has 7 instructional models from Metzler
has a great section on what different philosophies mean for the curriculum


Tuesday, August 11, 2009



It appears as if asynchronicity of exertion activities (in plain English: playing a sport across different time zones) lends itself to learning. Will need to investigate more.


Monday, August 10, 2009


London Knowledge Lab Supports Research on Exertion Interfaces with Ubicomp Grand

Floyd received a Ubicomp Grand to work with Jennifer Sheridan and Sara Price from the Designing Tangibles for Learning project at the London Knowledge Lab on the topic of Exertion Interfaces.

The work involves a Jogging over a Distance evaluation between runners in the UK and Australia. Furthermore, the research investigations how technology can support social aspects when participating in asynchronous exertion activities, as it is believed that asynchronicity in this context can be used to contribute positively to kinesthetic literacy.

This blog will serve as notebook during this project to jot down ideas and assimilate thoughts on the topic.


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